Marc Chagall

Beloosesky Gallery is interested in purchasing artwork by Chagall including prints. 

Please call (917) 749-4577 or email us at info@beloosesky.com

 

Marc Chagall was a man of keen intelligence, a shrewd observer of the contemporary scene, with a great sympathy for human suffering.  He was born on July 7, 1887 in Vitebsk, Russia; his original name was Moishe Shagal (Segal), but when he became a foremost member of the Ecole de Paris, he adopted French citizenship and the French spelling of his name.  Vitebsk was a good-sized Russian town of over 60,000, not a shtetl.  His father supported a wife and eight children as a worker in a herring-pickling plant. 

Sheltered by the Jewish commandment against graven images, the young Chagall never saw so much as a drawing until, one day, he watched a schoolmate copying a magazine illustration.  He was ridiculed for his astonishment, but he began copying and improvising from magazines.  Both Chagall's parents reluctantly agreed to let him study with Yehuda Pen, a Jewish artist in Vitebsk.  Later, in 1906, they allowed their son to study in St. Petersburg, where he was exposed to Russian Iconography and folk art.  At that time, Jews could leave the Pale only for business and employment and were required to carry a permit.  Chagall, who was in St. Petersburg without a permit, was imprisoned briefly.

His first wife, Bella Rosenfeld, was a product of a rich cultivated and intellectual group of Jews in Vitebsk.  Chagall was made commissar for the arts for the area, charged with directing its cultural life and establishing an art school.  Russian folklore, peasant life and landscapes persisted in his work all his life.  In 1910 a rich patron, a lawyer named Vinaver, staked him to a crucial trip to Paris, where young artists were revolutionizing art. He also sent him a handsome allowance of 125 francs (in those days about $24) each month.   Chagall rejected cubism, fauvism and futurism, but remained in Paris.  He found a studio near Montparnasse in a famous twelve-sided wooden structure divided into wedge-shaped rooms.  Chaim Soutine, a fellow Russian Jew, and Modigliani lived on the same floor.  To Chagall's astonishment, he found himself heralded as one of the fathers of surrealism.  In 1923, a delegation of Max Ernst, Paul Eluard and Gala (later Salvador Dali's wife) actually knelt before Chagall, begging him to join their ranks.  He refused.                                    
                                                                                                                             

To understand Chagall's work, it is necessary to know that he was born a Hasidic Jew, heir to mysticism and a world of the spirit, steeped in Jewish lore and reared in the Yiddish language.  The Hasidim had a special feeling for animals, which they tried not to overburden.  In the mysterious world of Kabbala and fantastic ancient legends of Chagall's youth, the imaginary was as important as the real.  His extraordinary use of color also grew out of his dream world; he did not use color realistically, but for emotional effect and to serve the needs of his design.  Most of his favorite themes, though superficially light and trivial, mask dark and somber thoughts. The circus he views as a mirror of life; the crucifixion as a tragic theme, used as a parallel to the historic Jewish condition, but he is perhaps best known for the rapturous lovers he painted all his life.  His love of music is a theme that runs through his paintings.

After a brief period in Berlin, Chagall, Bella and their young daughter, Ida, moved to Paris and in 1937 they assumed French citizenship.  When France fell, Chagall accepted an invitation from the Museum of Modern Art to immigrate to the United States.  He was arrested and imprisoned in Marseilles for a short time, but was still able to immigrate with his family.  The Nazi onslaught caught Chagall in Vichy, France, preoccupied with his work.  He was loath to leave; his friend Varian Fry rescued him from a police roundup of Jews in Marseille, and packed him, his family and 3500 lbs. of his art works on board a transatlantic ship.  The day before he arrived in New York City, June 23, 1941, the Nazis attacked Russia.  The United States provided a wartime haven and a climate of liberty for Chagall.   In America he spent the war years designing large backdrops for the Ballet. 

Bella died suddenly in the United States of a viral infection in September 1944 while summering in upstate New York. He rushed her to a hospital in the Adirondacks, where, hampered by his fragmentary English, they were turned away with the excuse that the hour was too late.  The next day she died.

He waited for three years after the war before returning to France.  With him went a slender married English girl, Virginia Haggard MacNeil;  Chagall fell in love with her and they had a son, David.  After seven years she ran off with an indigent photographer.  It was an immense blow to Chagall's ego, but soon after, he met Valentine Brodsky, a Russian divorcee designing millinery in London (he called her Fava).  She cared for him during the days of his immense fame and glory. They returned to France, to a home and studio in rustic Vence.  Chagall loved the country and every day walked through the orchards, terraces, etc. before he went to work.

Chagall died on March 28, 1985 in the south of France.  His heirs negotiated an arrangement with the French state allowing them to pay most of their inheritance taxes in works of art.  The heirs owed about $30 million to the French government; roughly $23 million of that amount was deemed payable in artworks. Chagall's daughter, Ida and his widow approved the arrangement.

Written and submitted by Jean Ershler Schatz, artist and researcher from Laguna Woods, California.

Sources:
Hannah Grad Goodman in Homage to Chagall in Hadassah Magazine, June 1985
Jack Kroll in Newsweek, April 8, 1985
Andrea Jolles in National Jewish Monthly Magazine, May 1985 
Michael Gibson in ARTnews, September 1988 

Time Magazine, July 30, 1965

 

Biography from the Archives of AskART.

 

 

TIMELINE

 

1887
Born on July 7, Vitebsk, Russia
 

1907–1910
Studied at the Imperial Society for the Protection of the Arts; Saint Petersburg
 

1918
Appointed Commissar for Art, founded the Vitebsk Popular Art School
 

1927
Recognized as a leading painter of the School of Paris and founding member of the Association des Peintres-Graveurs
 

1939
Awarded first prize by the Carnegie Foundation, Pittsburgh
 

1948
Awarded the Grand Prix de Gravure at the Venice Biennale
 

1959
Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters
 

1965
Awarded an Honorary Degree by Notre-Dame University, Indiana
 

1977
Awarded the Grand Cross of the Legion d’Honneur
 

1985
Died on March 28, Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France

 

 

EXHIBITIONS

 

2013
Chagall: entre guerre et paix, Musee National du Luxembourg, Paris (solo)
 

2012
Marc Chagall, Nassau County Museum of Art, NY (solo)
 

2008
Marc Chagall, MAN - Museo d'Arte di Nuoro, Nuoro
 

2007
Marc Chagall: The Bible Series, Louisiana Art & Science Museum, Baton Rouge, LA
 

2006
Marc Chagall, Tale Art Museum, Lillestrom
 

1985
Marc Chagall: Retrospectives; Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia; Royal Academy, London
 

1983
Oeuvres sur papier exhibition: National Museum of Modern Art, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris
 

1982
Marc Chagall: Retrospectives; Moderna Museet, Stockholm; Louisianer Museum of Modern Art, Humlebaek, Denmark
 

1977–1978
Marc Chagall: The artist’s work from 1967 to 1977; Musée du Louvre, Paris
 

1974
Marc Chagall: Retrospective of engraved works (prints); National Gallery, East Berlin and Dresden
 

1970
Hommage a Marc Chagall; Musee du Grand-Palais, Paris
 

1967
Marc Chagall: Retrospectives; Zurich, Cologne and the Maeght Foundation in Saint-Paul-de-Vence
 

1963
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo
 

1959
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; Museum of Decorative Arts, Palais du Louvre, Paris
 

1951
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; Jerusalem
 

1947
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; Musee National d'Art Moderne, Paris
 

1946
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; Museum of Modern Art, New York
 

1942
Artists in Exile; New York
 

1938
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels
 

1933
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; Kunsthalle Basel, Basel
 

1926
Marc Chagall: Solo Exhibition; Reinhardt Gallery, New York
 

1924
Marc Chagall: Retrospective; Galerie Barbazanges-Hodebert, Paris
 

1913
Marc Chagall: Solo Exhibition; Der Sturm Gallery, Berlin
 

1912
Participated in the Salon des Indépendants and the Salon d’Automne; Paris, France